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» Former Maryland governor Martin O’Malley

Five myths about gerrymandering

cheap replica handbags «He who controls redistricting Replica Designer Handbags can control Congress,» Karl Rove, President George W. Bush’s political counselor, said before the 2010 midterms. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court recently redrew the state’s GOP dominated congressional map, boosting Democratic chances of taking back the House of Representatives. Supreme Court is weighing whether to outlaw gerrymandering Replica Bags Wholesale and has three big cases on its docket this year Fake Designer Bags from Wisconsin, Maryland and Texas. Gerrymandering has gone from a Fake Handbags wonky technical problem to a matter of great political intrigue. Yet there are many misperceptions about how the process works. cheap replica handbags

Designer Fake Bags Myth No. politics. Designer Fake Bags

Replica Handbags Practically every history of gerrymandering includes a reference to Massachusetts Gov. Elbridge Gerry, who in 1812 approved a state Senate district shaped like a salamander that became known as a «Gerry purse replica handbags Mander.» It’s replica Purse a frequent talking point KnockOff Handbags among politicians that gerrymandering is as old replica handbags china as American democracy itself. «It is well established that partisan intent in districting is lawful,» the state of Wisconsin argued when its new State Assembly map was challenged in court. «Districting is ‘inherently political’ and ‘there is nothing in the Constitution to prevent’ consideration of political factors,» the leaders of Pennsylvania’s legislature wrote in January. Replica Handbags

Fake Designer Bags These arguments ignore that America was founded on the basis of purse replica handbags fair replica Purse representation, as a reaction to the British system of «virtual representation» that gave Americans no say in the Fake Designer Bags running of their colony. Gerrymandering has been denounced as long Designer Fake Bags as it’s been practiced. Gerry himself called the Replica Handbags map he signed «highly disagreeable,» and the Salem Gazette, which coined the term «gerrymander,» wrote that «this Law inflicted a grievous wound on the Constitution.» Fake Designer Bags

replica Purse Moreover, today’s gerrymandering because of sophisticated technology, increased political polarization and the clustering of partisans in like minded areas makes the map signed by Gerry look quaint, according to a study by Nicholas Stephanopoulos of the wholesale replica designer handbags University of Chicago and Eric McGhee of the Public Policy Institute of California. Simon Jackman of the University of Sydney analyzed 786 different state legislative plans between 1972 Designer Fake Bags and 2014 and found that five of the 10 worst Republican gerrymanders had been passed since 2010. replica Purse

Fake Handbags Myth No. high quality replica handbags 2 Fake Handbags

Handbags Replica GOP dominance has more to do with Designer Fake Bags geography than gerrymandering. House won 1.4 million more votes than Republicans did, but Republicans controlled 33 more seats. «The Democrats’ loss in the House was caused largely not by gerrymandering, high quality replica handbags but districting itself,» argued Nicholas Goedert, a political scientist at Virginia Tech University, in the political science blog the Monkey Cage. Many experts Designer Replica Bags have echoed this view. «Because liberals, young voters, minorities, and other members of the Democrats’ coalition replica handbags online tend to be concentrated in cities and/or placed into minority Replica Designer Handbags majority districts, this Replica Bags Wholesale damaged their ability to win congressional districts,» wrote Sean Trende, the senior elections analyst for Real Clear Politics. Before the 2016 election, Replica Bags Wholesale the New York Times ran Replica Bags an opinion piece titled «Go Midwest, Young Hipster,» examining Fake Designer Bags Democrats’ clustering in urban Designer Replica Bags or coastal areas. Handbags Replica

wholesale replica designer handbags Yet geography alone doesn’t explain Republican dominance in many states. Political geographers from Stanford and Carnegie Designer Replica Bags Mellon found, for instance, that there was «less than a one in one thousand chance» that the map passed by Wisconsin Republicans, which gave them 60 percent of Replica Handbags the seats in the State Assembly, was based on where Democrats lived. Indeed, Pennsylvania Republicans went to almost comic lengths to contort political boundaries for partisan advantage, drawing one district, nicknamed «Goofy Kicking aaa replica designer handbags Donald Duck,» that spanned Fake Designer Bags five counties and 26 municipalities, and at one of its narrowest points ran through the parking lot of a seafood restaurant in the town of King of Prussia. wholesale replica designer handbags

purse replica handbags Myth No. 3Wisconsin Assembly Speaker Robin Vos, a Republican, said Democrats complain about the GOP’s sizable majority «because their candidates and their issues Designer Replica Bags don’t appeal to the majority of Americans.» His legislative Fake Handbags counterparts in Pennsylvania likewise argue that gerrymandering doesn’t determine political outcomes. «The only plausible reason it would be ‘harder’ for Petitioners to elect candidates of their choice,» wrote the leaders of Pennsylvania’s legislature, «is because it may be ‘harder’ for Petitioners to persuade a majority of the other 705,000+ voters in their districts to agree with them on the candidate they prefer.» purse replica handbags

aaa replica designer handbags But across the country, both parties have secured airtight majorities for multiple election cycles by controlling the redistricting process. In 2012, Republican legislative candidates received 48.6 percent of the vote in Wisconsin but won 60 percent of the seats in the State Assembly. In 2014, Democratic candidates received 57 percent of the vote in Maryland but won 88 percent of the state’s congressional seats. aaa replica designer handbags

Replica Bags Indeed, both parties have been explicit about their partisan aims. Tad Ottman, a legislative aide who helped draw Wisconsin’s maps, told Republicans, «The maps we pass will Fake Handbags determine who’s here 10 years from now.» The GOP chairman of North Carolina’s House redistricting committee admitted: «We want to make clear that we.. are going to use political data in drawing this map. It is to gain partisan advantage.» Former Maryland governor Martin O’Malley, a Democrat, said, «Part of my intent was to create a map that, all things being legal and equal, would, nonetheless, be wholesale replica designer handbags more likely to elect more Democrats rather than less.» (Republicans had full control of the redistricting process in 21 states vs. eight states for Democrats after the 2010 elections .) As Karl Rove famously predicted before the 2010 midterms, «He who controls redistricting can control Congress.» Replica Bags

Replica Designer Handbags Myth No. 4 Replica Designer Handbags

high quality replica handbags Courts have historically left redistricting to states. high quality replica handbags

replica handbags online After Pennsylvania’s Supreme Court drew a new congressional map, reducing the GOP’s big advantage, the state’s Republicans argued that the courts should stay out of redistricting matters. In the 1930s and 1940s, legislative districts were wildly wholesale replica designer handbags unequal in wholesale replica designer handbags https://www.aabags.ru population; some had 900,000 people, others as few as 10,000. That gave certain voters a much bigger say than others in deciding who was elected. At first, the Supreme Court refused to KnockOff Handbags touch the issue. But in 1962, Justice William Brennan wrote for the majority in Baker v. Carr that «judicial standards under the Equal Protection Clause are well developed and familiar, and it has been open to courts since the enactment of the Fourteenth Amendment.» That led to the «one person, one vote» cases of the 1960s, which mandated that districts cheap replica handbags be roughly equal in population and, as a consequence, more fair. The Supreme Court has the same power to strike down partisan gerrymandering today. replica handbags online

Designer Replica Bags Myth No. 5 Designer Replica Bags

replica handbags china There are no standards for Handbags Replica gerrymandering. replica handbags china

Wholesale Replica Bags «Gerrymandering is distasteful,» said Justice Samuel Alito during the Wisconsin arguments. «But if we are going to impose a standard on the courts, it has to be something that’s manageable, and it has to be something that’s sufficiently concrete.» Chief Justice John Roberts dismissed the social science used to identify gerrymandering as «sociological gobbledygook.» This is not a new concern for the justices: In the 2004 case Vieth v. Jubelirer, Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote, «There are yet no agreed upon substantive principles of fairness in districting.» Wholesale Replica Bags

Replica Bags Wholesale But today, political scientists have developed a number of concrete tests to measure partisan gerrymandering, such as the number of KnockOff Handbags «wasted» votes for a party (as when Democrats are submerged in a deeply Republican district) or when a party receives Wholesale Replica Handbags far more seats than its share of votes. You can check out previous myths, read more from Outlook or follow our updates on Facebook and Twitter Replica Bags Wholesale.

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